What are the liquidity pools in Defi?

6 min readOct 26, 2023


Decentralized Finance (DeFi) has disrupted the traditional financial industry by offering decentralized, trustless, and open financial services. One of the fundamental components powering the DeFi ecosystem is liquidity pools. Liquidity pools enable trading, lending, and borrowing of cryptocurrencies and tokens within decentralized applications (dApps). This article will delve into liquidity pools, exploring their purpose, mechanics, benefits, and safety considerations.

What is a liquidity Pool?
A liquidity pool is a clever contract-based mechanism within DeFi that allows users to provide their cryptocurrency assets to enable trading activities. These assets are locked in a pool, and traders can exchange tokens from this pool at any time. The primary goal of liquidity pools is to facilitate liquidity within decentralized exchanges by ensuring sufficient assets are always available for trading.

Liquidity Pools: Enabling Trades in Defi
A liquidity pool is a mix of two different cryptocurrencies that allow users to trade whenever they want, without any supervision, on decentralized exchanges.

Smart contracts create these pools by locking two tokens in a smart contract, which becomes a liquidity pool. These tokens can then be used for trading on decentralized networks, providing ‘liquidity.’ These pools make tokens available for users to trade without intermediaries or central authorities, such as traditional exchanges.

Traditional exchanges often use an ‘order book’ where buyers and sellers must match their orders to trade.

A DEX, on the other hand, operates without any third parties or intermediaries. It is trustless. Therefore, the traditional order-matching system would fail when dealing with a token with low liquidity. It could still work, but order-matching would be problematic when the trading volume is shallow, which is typical for new and niche cryptocurrency projects.

That’s why liquidity pools were invented, which gather liquidity from different sources by giving liquidity providers a share of trading fees in return for putting liquidity into a pool. With smart contracts and liquidity pools, a person can trade without looking for another party to agree. The liquidity pool takes the other party’s place in the transaction, facilitating decentralized and trustless trading.

How do liquidity pools work?

Users contribute equal values of two tokens to a smart contract to participate in a liquidity pool. For instance, if you want to contribute to an ETH/USDC liquidity pool, you would provide an equivalent value of ETH and USDC. This ensures that the pool maintains a constant ratio between the two assets.

This ratio is also known as the constant product formula, which states that the product of the two token balances in the pool must always remain the same.

For example, if the pool has 100 ETH and 200,000 USDC, the constant product is 100 * 200,000 = 20,000,000. If someone swaps 1 ETH for 2,000 USDC, the new balances are 99 ETH and 202,000 USDC, and the constant product is still 99 * 202,000 = 20,000,000.

Rewards and risks

When traders make swaps, they pay fees, a portion of which is distributed to liquidity providers based on their proportional share of the pool. This incentivizes liquidity providers to add assets to the pool and earn passive income.

However, the fees are not enough to compensate for the price fluctuations of the tokens in the pool. When one token appreciates relative to the other, the pool becomes imbalanced, and the liquidity providers lose some initial deposits. This is called impermanent loss, and it occurs when the ratio of the tokens in the pool diverges from the ratio of their market prices. Impermanent loss can be mitigated by choosing low-volatility or high-correlation tokens.

Benefits of Liquidity Pools

Although liquidity pools can be volatile, they still play an essential role within the Defi ecosystem and provide even modest investors with the chance to participate in the collection of trading fees. Therefore, let’s look at some of the benefits of a liquidity pool.

Better liquidity: Users can access various crypto assets and markets and trade large amounts quickly and easily. This makes trading more efficient and less expensive.

Lower slippage: Users can trade at market prices without relying on a third party to match orders. This reduces the risk of losing money or opportunities due to price changes during trades.

Higher security: Users can trade directly with each other without a centralized platform or middleman. This reduces the risk of fraud or manipulation and increases privacy.

Lower costs: Users can save money on trading fees and spreads because no middlemen are involved. Also, crypto platforms that offer liquidity pools usually have more liquidity, which can improve cost efficiency.

Passive income: Users can earn interest by providing liquidity to the pool and letting other traders use their position. This provides an extra source of income for those who want to make money in crypto without active trading or investing.

Faster execution: Users can trade faster and more effectively because orders are filled immediately at market prices. This eliminates delays on traditional exchanges and allows traders to react quickly in volatile markets.

How safe are Liquidity Pools?

Liquidity pools are only partially safe, as they involve some risks that users should know before joining them. Some of the main risks are:

Impermanent loss:

This is the loss of value that occurs when the price ratio of the tokens in the pool changes compared to the market price ratio.

For example, if one token appreciates while the other depreciates, the pool becomes imbalanced, and the liquidity providers lose some initial deposits. This loss is impermanent because it can be recovered if the price ratio returns to its original state. However, this is not guaranteed and may take a long time or never happen.


This is the difference between the expected price and the actual price of a trade. Slippage occurs when insufficient liquidity exists in the pool to execute a large trade without affecting the price.

For example, if a user wants to swap a large amount of token A for token B, but the pool has a low supply of token B, the user will receive less token B than expected and pay more token A than expected.

Smart contract bugs:

This is the risk of losing funds due to errors or vulnerabilities in the smart contract code that governs the pool. Smart contracts are programs that execute transactions automatically according to predefined rules, but they can also have bugs or backdoors that hackers or malicious actors can exploit.

For example, a brilliant contract bug could allow someone to drain the pool’s funds or manipulate the price.

In conclusion

Liquidity pools are a pivotal component of the DeFi ecosystem, offering numerous advantages while presenting certain risks. These pools have revolutionized how assets are traded and managed within the decentralized financial landscape.

The key takeaway is that liquidity pools empower users to participate in decentralized trading, lending, and borrowing without the need for intermediaries or centralized platforms. The benefits of liquidity pools include enhanced liquidity, reduced slippage, heightened security, lower costs, passive income opportunities, and faster execution. This makes them an attractive option for both small and large investors seeking exposure to the crypto markets.

However, it’s crucial to recognize the potential risks associated with liquidity pools, such as impermanent loss, slippage, and vulnerability to smart contract bugs. Users must exercise caution, perform due diligence, and choose well-established platforms to minimize these risks.

In summary, liquidity pools embody the innovative spirit of DeFi by democratizing access to financial services and promoting the concept of trustless, peer-to-peer trading. As the DeFi space evolves, liquidity pools will remain foundational, enabling a more open and inclusive financial ecosystem.

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